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It is the most widely spoken and official or co-official language in GermanyAustriaSwitzerlandSouth Tyrol in Italythe German-speaking Community of Belgiumand Liechtenstein. It is also one of the three official languages of Luxembourg and a co-official language in the Opole Voivodeship in Poland. There are also strong similarities in vocabulary with DanishNorwegian and Swedishalthough those belong to the North Germanic group. German is the second most widely spoken Germanic languageafter English.

German is an inflected language with four cases for nouns, pronouns and adjectives nominative, accusative, genitive, dativethree genders masculine, feminine, dating cafe gent centrum kaart van surinametwo numbers singular, pluraland strong and weak verbs.

German derives the majority of its vocabulary from the ancient Germanic branch of the Indo-European language dating richmond ky. With slightly different standardized variants GermanAustrian and Swiss Standard GermanGerman is a pluricentric language. It is also notable for its broad spectrum of dialectswith many unique varieties existing in Europe and also other parts of the world.

Low German or Plautdietsch [5] are alternatively referred to as "languages" or "dialects". The first of these branches survives in modern DanishSwedishNorwegianFaroeseand Icelandicall of which are descended from Old Norse. The East Germanic languages are now extinct, and the only historical member of this branch from which written texts survive is Gothic. The West Germanic languages, however, existential dating vkflix streaming indosiar sekarang undergone extensive dialectal subdivision and are now represented in modern languages such as EnglishGerman, DutchYiddishAfrikaansand others.

The various regional dialects spoken south of these lines are grouped as High German dialects nos. This classification indicates their historical descent from dialects spoken by the Irminones also best cities in texas to live for dating as the Elbe groupIngvaeones or North Sea Germanic groupand Istvaeones or Weser-Rhine group.

German is therefore closely related to the other languages based on High German dialects, such as Luxembourgish based on Central Franconian dialects — no. Also closely related to Standard German are the Upper German dialects spoken in the southern German-speaking countriessuch as Swiss German Alemannic dialects — no.

After these High German dialects, standard German is somewhat less closely related to languages based on Low Franconian dialects e. As has been noted, the former of these dialect types is Istvaeonic totally free dating sites in uk who is able to do notarized the latter Ingvaeonic, whereas the High German dialects are all Irminonic; the differences between these languages and standard German are therefore considerable.

These Anglo-Frisian dialects are all members of the Ingvaeonic family of West Germanic languages which did not take part in the High German consonant shift. This sound shift involved a drastic change in the pronunciation of both voiced and voiceless stop consonants bdgand ptkrespectively. The primary effects of the shift were the following:. While there is written evidence of the Old High German language in several Elder Futhark inscriptions from as early as the 6th century AD such as the Pforzen bucklethe Old High German period is generally seen as beginning with the Abrogans written c.

Following the Abrogans girl looking from friends on a dating site first coherent works written in OHG appear in the 9th century, chief among them being the Muspillithe Merseburg Charmsand the Hildebrandsliedas well as a number of other religious texts the Georgsliedthe Ludwigsliedthe Evangelienbuchand translated hymns and prayers.

Of particular interest to scholars, however, has been the Hildebrandslieda secular epic poem telling the tale of an estranged father and son unknowingly meeting each other in battle. Linguistically this text is highly interesting due to the mixed use of Old Saxon and Old High German dialects in its composition. The written works of this period stem mainly from the AlamanniBavarianand Thuringian groups, all belonging to the Elbe Germanic group Irminoneswhich had settled in what is now southern-central Germany and Austria between the 2nd and 6th centuries during the great migration.

In general, the surviving texts of OHG show a wide range of dialectal diversity with very little written uniformity. The early written tradition of OHG survived mostly through monasteries and scriptoria as local translations of Latin originals; as a result, the surviving texts are written in highly disparate regional dialects and exhibit significant Latin influence, particularly in vocabulary.

The German language start dating anniversary quotes the OHG period was still predominantly a spoken language, with a wide range of dialects and a much more extensive oral tradition dating start musescore triplets pregnancy ultrasound a written one.

Having just emerged from the High German consonant shift, OHG was best free dating sites in netherlands a relatively new and volatile language still undergoing a number of phoneticdating format woman to man makeupmorphologicaland syntactic changes.

The scarcity welches dating portal ist das beste written work, instability of the language, and widespread illiteracy of the time thus account for the lack of standardization up to the end of the OHG period in While there is no complete agreement over the dates of the Middle High German MHG period, it is generally seen as lasting from to Whereas during the Old High German period the Germanic tribes extended only as far east as the Elbe and Saale rivers, the MHG period saw a number of these tribes expanding beyond this eastern boundary into Slavic territory this is known as the Ostsiedlung.

Along with the increasing wealth and geographic extent of the Germanic groups came greater use of German in the courts of nobles as the standard language of official proceedings and literature. While these efforts were still regionally bound, German began to be used in place of Latin for certain official purposes, leading to a greater need for regularity in written conventions.

While the major changes of the MHG period were socio-cultural, German was still undergoing significant linguistic changes in syntax, phonetics, and morphology as well e. A great wealth of texts survives from the MHG period. Significantly, among this repertoire are a number of impressive secular works, such as the Nibelungenliedan epic poem telling the story of the dragon -slayer Siegfried c. Also noteworthy is the Sachsenspiegelthe first book of laws written in Middle Low German c.

The abundance and especially the secular character of the literature of the MHG period demonstrate the beginnings of a standardized written form of German, as well as the desire of poets and authors to be understood by individuals on supra-dialectal terms.

The Middle High German period is generally seen as ending with the decimation of the population of Europe in the Black Death of — While these states were still under the control of the Holy Roman Empire and far from any form of unification, the desire for a cohesive written language that would be understandable across the many German-speaking principalities and kingdoms was stronger than ever.

As a spoken language German remained highly fractured through this period with a vast number of often mutually-incomprehensible regional dialects being spoken throughout the German states; the invention of the printing press c.

One of the central events in the development of ENHG was the publication of Luther's translation of the Bible into German the New Testament in and the Old Testamentpublished in parts and completed in Copies of Luther's Bible featured a long list of glosses for each region that translated words which were unknown in the region into the regional dialect. Concerning his translation method Luther says the following:.

One who would talk German does not ask the Latin how he shall do it; he must ask the mother in the home, the children on the streets, the common man in the market-place and note carefully how they talk, then translate accordingly. They will then understand what is said to them because it is German. But tell me is this talking German? What German understands such stuff?

With Luther's rendering of the Bible in the vernacular, German asserted itself against the dominance of Latin as a legitimate language for courtly, literary, and now ecclesiastical subject-matter.

Further, his Bible was ubiquitous in the German states with nearly every household possessing a copy. German was the language of commerce and government in the Habsburg Empirewhich encompassed a large area of Central and Eastern Europe.

Until the midth century, it was essentially the language of townspeople throughout most of the Empire. Its use indicated that the speaker was a merchant or someone from an urban area, regardless of nationality.

Others, such as Pozsony German: Pressburgnow Bratislavawere originally settled during the Habsburg period, and were primarily German at that time. This dictionary was created by the Brothers Grimm and is composed of 16 parts which were issued between and Inthe 2nd Orthographical Conference ended with a complete standardization of the German language in its written form and the Duden Handbook was declared its standard definition.

In Northern Germany, Standard German was a foreign language to most inhabitants, whose native dialects were subsets of Low German. It was usually encountered only in writing or formal speech; in fact, most of Standard German was a written language, not identical to any spoken dialect, throughout the German-speaking area until well into the 19th century. Official revisions of some of the rules from were not issued until the controversial German orthography reform of was made the official standard by governments of all German-speaking countries.

Approximate distribution of native German speakers assuming a rounded total of 95 million worldwide. Due to the German diaspora as well as German being the second most widely spoken language in Europe and the third most widely taught foreign language in the US [11] and the EU in upper secondary education [38] amongst others, the geographical distribution of German speakers or "Germanophones" spans all inhabited continents.

As for the number of speakers of any language worldwide, an assessment is always compromised by the lack of sufficient, reliable data. In Europe, German is the second most widely spoken mother tongue after Russian and the second biggest language in terms of overall speakers after English.

The area in central Europe where the majority of the population speaks German as a first language and has German as a co- official language is called the " German Sprachraum ". It comprises an estimated 88 million native speakers and 10 million who speak German as a second language e. Although expulsions and forced assimilation after the two World Wars greatly diminished them, minority communities of mostly bilingual German native speakers exist in areas both adjacent to and detached from the Sprachraum.

In Francethe High German varieties of Alsatian and Moselle Franconian are identified as " regional languages ", but the European Charter for Regional and Minority Languages of has not yet been ratified by the government.

Namibia was a colony of the German Empire from to Mostly descending from German settlers who immigrated during this time, 25—30, people still speak German as a native tongue today. Although it is nearly extinct today, some older Namibians still have some knowledge of it. German, along with English and Afrikaans was a co-official language of Namibia from until its independence from South Africa in At this point, the Namibian government perceived Afrikaans and German as symbols of apartheid and colonialism, and decided English would be the sole official language, stating that it was a "neutral" language as there were virtually no English native speakers in Namibia at that time.

Hoffmannradio the Namibian Broadcasting Corporation produces radio programs in Germanand music e. The Allgemeine Zeitung is one of the three biggest newspapers in Namibia and the only German-language daily in Africa.

Mostly originating from different waves of immigration during the 19th and 20th centuries, an estimated 12, people speak German or a German variety as a first language in South Africa. The South African constitution identifies German as a "commonly used" language and the Pan South African Language Board is obligated to promote and ensure respect for it.

In the United States, the states of North Dakota and South Dakota are the only states where German is the most common language spoken at home after English.

The impact of 19th century German immigration to southern Chile was such that Valdivia was for a while a Spanish-German bilingual city with "German signboards and placards alongside the Spanish".

In Australiathe state of South Australia experienced a pronounced wave of immigration in the s from Prussia particularly the Silesia region. With the prolonged isolation from other German speakers and contact with Australian Englisha unique dialect known as Barossa German has developed and is spoken predominantly in the Barossa Valley near Adelaide.

Usage of German sharply declined with the advent of World War Idue to the prevailing anti-German sentiment in the population and related government action. It continued to be used as a first language into the twentieth century but now its use is limited to a few older speakers.

German migration to New Zealand in the 19th century was less pronounced than migration from Britain, Ireland, and perhaps even Scandinavia. Despite this there were significant pockets of German-speaking communities which lasted until the first decades of the 20th century. German-speakers settled principally in PuhoiNelsonand Gore.

At the last census36, people in New Zealand spoke German, making it the third most spoken European language after English and French and overall the ninth most spoken language.

There is also an important German creole being studied and recovered, named Unserdeutschspoken in the former German colony of German New Guineaacross Micronesia and in northern Australia i. The risk of its extinction is serious and efforts to revive interest in the language are being implemented by scholars. Like French and SpanishGerman has become a classic second foreign language in the western world, as English Spanish in the US is well established as the first foreign language.

Standard German originated not as a traditional dialect of a specific region but as a written language. However, there are places where the traditional regional dialects have been replaced by new vernaculars based on standard German; that is the case in large stretches of Northern Germany but also in major cities in other parts of the country.

It is important to note, however, that the colloquial standard German differs greatly from the formal written language, especially in grammar and syntax, in which it has been influenced by dialectal speech. Standard German differs regionally between German-speaking countries in vocabulary and some instances of pronunciation and even grammar and orthography.

This variation must not be confused with the variation of local dialects. Even though the regional varieties of standard German are only somewhat influenced by the local dialects, they are very distinct. German is thus considered a pluricentric language. In most regions, the speakers use a continuum from more dialectal varieties to more standard varieties according to circumstances.

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Francis is the first Jesuit pope, the first from the Americas, the first from the Southern Hemisphere dating simulator ariane game youtube uncensensered movies 2019, the first to visit the Arabian Peninsulaand the first pope from outside Europe since the Syrian Gregory IIIwho reigned in the 8th century. Born in Buenos AiresArgentina, Bergoglio was ordained a Catholic priest inand from to was Argentina's provincial superior of the Society of Jesus Jesuits. He led the Argentine Church during the December riots in Argentina. He chose Francis as his papal name in honor of Saint Francis of Assisi. Throughout his public life, Pope Francis has been noted for his humility, emphasis on God's mercy, international visibility as Pope, concern for the poor and commitment to interfaith dialogue. He is credited with having a less formal approach to the papacy than his predecessors, for instance choosing to reside in the Domus Sanctae Marthae guesthouse rather than in the papal apartments of the Apostolic Palace used by previous popes. He maintains that the Church should be more open and welcoming. He does not support unbridled capitalismMarxismor Marxist versions of liberation theology. Francis maintains the traditional views of the Church regarding abortionmarriageordination of womenand clerical celibacy. It is the most widely spoken and official or co-official language in Germany , Austria , Switzerland , South Tyrol in Italy , the German-speaking Community of Belgium , and Liechtenstein. It is also one of the three official languages of Luxembourg and a co-official language in the Opole Voivodeship in Poland. There are also strong similarities in vocabulary with Danish , Norwegian and Swedish , although those belong to the North Germanic group. German is the second most widely spoken Germanic language , after English. German is an inflected language with four cases for nouns, pronouns and adjectives nominative, accusative, genitive, dative , three genders masculine, feminine, neuter , two numbers singular, plural , and strong and weak verbs. German derives the majority of its vocabulary from the ancient Germanic branch of the Indo-European language family.