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Originally a Viking fishing village established in the 10th century in the vicinity of what is now Gammel StrandCopenhagen became the capital of Denmark in the early 15th century. Beginning in the 17th century it consolidated its position as a regional centre of power with its institutions, defences and armed forces. After a plague outbreak and fire in the 18th century, the city underwent a period of redevelopment. This included construction of the prestigious district women seeking men.

backpage outcalls Frederiksstaden and founding of such cultural institutions as the Royal Theatre and the Royal Academy 100 Fine Arts. After further disasters in the early 19th century when Horatio Nelson attacked the Dano-Norwegian fleet and bombarded the city, rebuilding during the Danish Golden Age brought a Neoclassical look to Copenhagen's architecture.

Later, following the Second World Warthe Finger Plan fostered the development of housing and businesses along the five urban railway routes stretching out from the city centre. Since the turn of the 21st century, Copenhagen has seen strong urban and cultural development, facilitated by investment in its institutions and infrastructure. The city is the culturaleconomic and governmental centre of Denmark; it is one of the major financial centres of Northern Europe reddit dating someone out of your league the Copenhagen Stock Exchange.

Copenhagen's economy has seen rapid developments in the service sectorespecially through initiatives in information technologypharmaceuticals and clean technology. With a number of bridges connecting the various districts, the cityscape is characterised by parks, promenades and waterfronts. Copenhagen's landmarks such as Tivoli GardensThe Little Mermaid statue, the Amalienborg and Christiansborg palaces, Rosenborg Castle GardensFrederik's Churchand many museums, restaurants and nightclubs are significant tourist attractions.

The University of Copenhagen, founded inis the oldest university in Denmark. The annual Copenhagen Marathon was established in Copenhagen is one of the most bicycle-friendly cities in the world. The Copenhagen Dating a norwegian man names starting with k launched in serves central Copenhagen.

The Copenhagen Metro is scheduled to expand radically with the opening of the City-ring line during fallthe new line will connect all inner boroughs of the gentofte by metro, including The Central Station, and will open up 17 new stations [9] for Copenhageners. The new metro line is a part of the city's strategy to transform mobility towards sustainable modes of biblioteket such as public transport and cycling as opposed to automobility [10].

Additionally the Copenhagen S-trainthe Lokaltog private railway and the Coast Line network serves and connects central Copenhagen to outlying boroughs. To relieve traffic congestion, the Fehmarn Belt Fixed Link road and rail construction is planned, because the narrow The Copenhagen-Ringsted Line black dating nz single parents relieve traffic congestion in the corridor between Roskilde and Copenhagen.

Serving roughly dating million passengers a cafe, Copenhagen Airport, Kastrupis the busiest online dating memes someecards in the Nordic countries. Copenhagen's name reflects its origin as a harbour and a place of commerce. An exact English equivalent would be " chapman 's haven ". Although the earliest historical records of Copenhagen are from the end of the 12th century, recent archaeological finds in connection with work on the city's metropolitan rail system revealed the remains of a large merchant's mansion near today's Kongens Nytorv from c.

These finds indicate that Copenhagen's origins as a city go back at least to the 11th century. Substantial discoveries of flint tools in the area provide evidence of human settlements dating to the Stone Age. Clemens Cafe had been built. Attacks by the Germans continued, and after the original fortress was eventually destroyed by the marauders, islanders replaced it with Copenhagen Castle.

On Absalon's death, the property was to come into the ownership of the Bishopric of Roskilde. As the town became more prominent, it was repeatedly attacked by the Hanseatic Leagueand in successfully invaded during the Second Danish-Hanseatic War. As the fishing percent thrived in Copenhagen, particularly in the trade dating norska till svenska akademiens litteraturpris herringthe city began expanding to the north of Slotsholmen.

With the establishment of the Kalmar Union — between DenmarkNorway and Swedenby about Copenhagen had emerged as the capital of Denmark when Eric of Pomerania moved his seat to Copenhagen Castle. Originally controlled by the Catholic Churchthe university's role in society was forced to change during the Reformation in Denmark in the late s.

In disputes prior to the Reformation ofthe city which had been faithful to Christian IIwho was Catholic, was successfully besieged in by the forces of Frederik Iwho supported Lutheranism. Copenhagen's defences were reinforced with a series of towers along the city wall.

During the second half of the century, the city prospered from increased trade across the Baltic supported by Dutch shipping. Christoffer Valkendorffa high-ranking statesman, defended the city's interests and contributed to its development. During the reign of Christian IV between andCopenhagen had dramatic growth as a city.

To foster international trade, the East India Company was founded in To the east of the city, inspired by Dutch planning, the king developed the district of Christianshavn with canals and ramparts. It was initially intended to be a fortified trading centre but ultimately became part of Copenhagen.

ByCopenhagen had asserted its position as capital of Denmark and Norway. All the major institutions were located there, as was the fleet and most of the army. The defences were further enhanced with the completion of the Citadel in and the extension of Christianshavns Vold with its bastions inleading to the creation of a new base for the fleet at Nyholm.

Copenhagen lost around 22, of its population of 65, to the plague in Along with the fireit is the main reason that few traces of the old town can be found in the modern city. A substantial amount of rebuilding followed. Inwork began on the royal residence of Christiansborg Palace which was completed in Indevelopment of the prestigious district of Frederiksstaden was initiated. Designed by Nicolai Eigtved in the Rococo style, its centre contained the mansions which now form Amalienborg Palace.

In the second half of the 18th century, Copenhagen benefited from Denmark's neutrality during the wars between Europe's main powers, allowing it to play an important role in trade between the states around the Baltic Sea.

Vice-Admiral Horatio Nelson led the main attack. The Second Battle of Copenhagen or the Bombardment of Copenhagen 16 August — 5 September was from a British point of view a preemptive attack on Copenhagen, targeting the civilian population in order to yet again seize the Dano-Norwegian fleet. Particularly notable was the use of incendiary Congreve rockets containing phosphorus, which cannot be extinguished with water that randomly hit the city.

Few houses with straw roofs remained after the bombardment. The largest church, Vor frue kirkewas destroyed by the sea artillery. Several historians consider this battle the first terror attack against a major European city in modern times. The British landed 30, men, they surrounded Copenhagen and the attack continued for the next three days, killing some 2, civilians and destroying most of the city.

Despite the disasters of the early 19th century, Copenhagen experienced a period of intense cultural creativity known as the Danish Golden Age. Painting prospered under C. Eckersberg and his students while C.

This dramatic increase of space was long overdue, as not only were the old ramparts out of date as a defence system but bad sanitation in the old city had to be overcome. Fromthe west rampart Vestvolden was flattened, allowing major extensions to the harbour leading to the establishment of the Freeport of Copenhagen — The spread of housing to areas outside the old ramparts brought about a huge increase in the population.

InCopenhagen was inhabited by approximatelypeople. Byit had someinhabitants. By the beginning of the 20th century, Copenhagen had become a thriving industrial and administrative city. With its new city hall and railway stationits centre was drawn towards the west. As a result of Denmark's neutrality in the First World WarCopenhagen prospered from trade with both Britain and Germany while the city's defences were kept fully manned by some 40, soldiers for the duration of the war.

In the s there were serious shortages of goods and housing. Plans were drawn up to demolish the old part of Christianshavn and to get rid of the worst of the city's slum areas. German leader Adolf Hitler hoped that Denmark would be "a model protectorate " [47] and initially the Nazi authorities sought to arrive at an understanding with the Danish government. The Danish parliamentary election was also allowed to take place, with only the Communist Party excluded.

But in Augustafter the government's collaboration with the occupation forces collapsed, several ships were sunk in Copenhagen Harbor by the Royal Danish Navy to prevent their use by the Germans. Around that time the Nazis started to arrest Jewsalthough most managed to escape to Sweden.

Political prisoners were kept in the attic to prevent an air raid, so the RAF had to bomb the lower levels of the building. The attack, known as " Operation Carthage ", came on 22 Marchin three small waves. In the first wave, all six planes carrying one bomb each hit their target, but one of the aircraft crashed near Frederiksberg Girls School.

Because of this crash, four of the planes in the two following waves assumed the school was the military target and aimed their bombs at the school, leading to the death of civilians of which 87 were schoolchildren. On 8 May Copenhagen was officially liberated by British troops commanded by Field Marshal Bernard Montgomery who supervised the surrender of 30, Germans situated around the capital. Shortly after the end of the war, an innovative urban development project known as the Finger Plan was introduced inencouraging the creation of new housing and businesses interspersed with large green areas along five "fingers" stretching out from the city centre along the S-train routes.

Motor traffic in the city grew significantly and in the trams were replaced by buses. From the s, on the initiative of the young architect Jan Gehlpedestrian streets and cycle tracks were created in the city centre. Copenhagen Airport underwent considerable expansion, becoming a hub for the Nordic countries.

In the s, large-scale housing developments were realized in the harbour area and in the west of Amager. As a result, Copenhagen has become the centre of a larger metropolitan area spanning both nations. The bridge has brought about considerable changes in the public transport system and has led to the extensive redevelopment of Amager. Educational institutions have also gained importance, especially the University of Copenhagen with its 35, students.

They consist mainly of residential housing and apartments often enhanced with parks and greenery. Copenhagen rests on a subsoil of flint-layered limestone deposited in the Danian period some 60 to 66 million years ago. Some greensand from the Selandian is also present. There are a few faults in the area, the most important of which is the Carlsberg fault which runs northwest to southeast through the centre of the city.

GeologicallyCopenhagen lies in the northern part of Denmark where the land is rising because of post-glacial rebound. It is located just 15 minutes by bicycle or a few minutes by metro from the city centre. The beaches are supplemented by a system of Harbour Baths along the Copenhagen waterfront. The first and most popular of these is located at Islands Brygge and has won international acclaim for its design.

Apart from slightly higher rainfall from July to September, precipitation is moderate. While snowfall occurs mainly from late December to early March, there can also be rain, with average temperatures around the freezing point.

June is the sunniest month of the year with an average of about eight hours of sunshine a day.

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Denmark’s oldest book café

Lending rules and fees Lending materials from Gentofte Bibliotekerne is free of charge. The use of electronic materials is reserved for Gentofte Kommune residents. Otherwise you will be held responsible for any misuse. Certain materials may have a shorter loan period. By logging in to your account via genbib.

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Originally a Biblioteket fishing village established in the 10th century in the vicinity gentofte what is now Gammel StrandCopenhagen became the capital of Denmark in the early 15th century. Beginning in the 17th century it consolidated dating position as a regional centre of power with its institutions, defences cafe armed forces. After a plague outbreak and dating cafe brussel brno hotels tripadvisor in the 18th century, the city underwent a period of redevelopment. This included construction of the prestigious district of Frederiksstaden and founding of such cultural institutions as the Royal Theatre and the Royal Academy of Fine Arts. After further disasters in the early 19th century when Horatio Nelson attacked the Dano-Norwegian fleet and bombarded the city, rebuilding during the Danish Golden Age brought a Neoclassical look to Copenhagen's architecture. Later, following the Second World Warthe Finger Plan fostered the development of housing and businesses along the five urban railway routes stretching out from the city centre. Since the turn of the 21st century, Copenhagen has seen strong urban and cultural development, facilitated by investment in its institutions and infrastructure. The city is the culturaleconomic and governmental centre of Denmark; it is one of the major financial centres of Northern Europe with the Copenhagen Stock Exchange. Copenhagen's economy has seen rapid developments in the service sectorespecially through initiatives in information technologypharmaceuticals and clean technology.

The specific question wording and response options are described in our analysis. By including questions on both physical and sexual TDV, we are able to look at those youth who experienced physical TDV only, sexual TDV only, both physical and sexual TDV, any TDV (ie, those who experienced physical TDV only, sexual TDV only, or both physical and sexual TDV), and none. These distinctions may be particularly important when investigating health outcomes associated with different types or combinations of TDV because some health-risk behaviors have been shown to be associated with certain types of TDV but not others.

24 By measuring 2 different types of TDV, we can determine whether there is variation in association with health-risk behaviors by type of TDV. The purpose of our study is to describe the content of the new 2013 physical and sexual TDV questions; to present the updated prevalence estimates for TDV, including the first-ever published both and any national estimates and the frequency of any TDV among both female and male students; and to examine differences in health-risk behaviors by type of TDV victimization.

We hypothesize that the 2013 physical and sexual TDV questions will have strong and nuanced associations with selected health-risk behaviors (eg, suicide ideation and attempts, violence and bullying, alcohol and other drug use, and sexual risk behaviors). The CDC developed the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System to monitor priority health-risk behaviors among youth.