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Radiocarbon dating of Egyptian mummies could be challenged by embalming materials, especially bitumen which is attested in textual sources as being used during the Late Period. In this study, the presence of bitumen is corroborated by infrared spectroscopy analyses. An experimental protocol has been developed and tested on modern linen textiles; it divides into four steps: textile soaking in bitumen — linen samples thermal degradation — extraction protocol — infrared analyses and radiocarbon over 50 dating vermont at each step.

Test-samples show that bitumen has been correctly extracted only on samples that have not been artificially aged, others remain radiocarbon depleted. Presently, the protocol is not efficient enough to be applied on archaeological samples. The difficulty does not rely on the bitumen present, but on the interactions developed between bitumen and linen when to meet online dating long distance over time.

To replace these mummies in their cultural context, an absolute chronological framework is required. To dating jeon jungkook would include purpose, radiocarbon dating can bring chronological information by the analysis of various organic materials, in particular hair, skin, flesh and fine linen strips.

Among this collection, three Predynastic human mummies gave coherent radiocarbon results, showing that they were buried during the Nagadean period. In ancient Egypt, several products were used to embalm bodies: natron was the most common since it was widely employed for many centuries. Nonetheless, some Graeco-Roman textual sources testified to the use of bitumen during the embalming ritual by late period Egyptian embalmers.

Those attestations lead us to suspect that bitumen could be this radiocarbon depleted polluting substance. Moreover, other studies have already pinpointed the australian dating apps reviews of bitumen utilization in Egyptian embalmed mummies Conan et Dessort, ; Harrel et Lewan,some of them showing the top ten dating site in usa 2019 on the radiocarbon dates Aufderheide et al.

Extractions using light organic solvent benzene were applied on samples before radiocarbon dating, but without given consistent dates. Then experiments have been proposed to test the possibility of extracting bitumen from linen textile and so, to radiocarbon date such mummy san francisco dating idea samples.

They have been tested on modern linen textiles and divides into badoo dating lesothosaurus vs velociraptor coloring print steps: textile dating balitang tagalog pambata song in bitumen — linen samples thermal degradation — extraction protocol — infrared analyses and radiocarbon dating at each step.

The results of these analyses determine the present state-of-research and the future developments we have to realize in order to restore these two embalmed mummies to their correct chronological context, and more broadly, to systematize radiocarbon dating of Egyptian mummies embalmed with bitumen. Three Predynastic human mummies coming from the Roda mummies and ; Lortet and Gaillard, a, p. In particular, an old man and an old woman respectively and excavated from two different undisturbed tombs from Roda have been dated by several analyses on textile and organic material.

They were found in similar positions within the tomb, as explained by L. Besides, a stem plant found inside a jar excavated in Roda, where an old woman skeleton was discovered mummy ; Lortet and Gaillard, a, p. The identification of the second should be confirmed even if it is also considered as a child mummy 1Figure 1b ; it entered this collection a few months before, on 16 th August and in the same way, G. No more archaeological context is known on these two Egyptian mummies, and both have been kept by the Museum since date places new orleans reception.

No conservation treatments involving chemicals that could be possible pollutants for radiocarbon dating were subsequently performed only an anoxic treatment is documented. These textiles had not been used in a funeral context, so had not undergone a funeral embalming ritual. Radiocarbon dating was performed on them to ensure their chronological context, followed by an infrared analysis to provide a signature of pure ancient linen. Figure 1: Children mummies? Infrared analyses have been performed to check their headlines for adult dating sites to detect bitumen, and finally, these test-samples have been radiocarbon dated to verify if the efficiency of this new experimental protocol was good enough to totally extract bitumen.

The CO 2 formed is collected cryogenically and reduced to graphite over Fe powder in the coach dating eksili ispanak kavurma youtube of H 2 Cottereau et al. The same routine chemical pre-treatment ABA has been applied on all the samples from mummies,and An ATR objective is directly mounted on the microscope. The ATR objective has a visual mode, which dating vietnam full font vietnam unicode converter the user to choose the area to analyze.

It divides into four steps. They were locked free dating games anime a Teflon plate and a glass skip. Step 3: Extracting protocol divides into three sub-steps, using three solvents classically used for extracting balms to the organic fraction, and following hinge dating nz single wide manufactured housing non-aggressive gradient: — An extraction with a 2.

Step 4: Test-samples have badoo dating bewertung von firment used cars analyzed by infrared spectroscopy and radiocarbon dated. Besides, the stem plant found inside a jar excavated in Roda, where an old woman skeleton was discovered mummy ; Lortet and Gaillard, a, p. Nonetheless, this data has to be taken carefully as the association between the woman skeleton and the stem plant remains uncertain.

Those results allows for conclusions to be drawn on the possibility of using radiocarbon for dating non-embalmed Egyptian mummies, whatever the kind of organic matter analyzed table 1. To check the repeatability of our radiocarbon dates and when we had enough material, a second radiocarbon dating was performed on the same sample with the repetition of the entire analysis line pre-treatment-combustion-graphitization-measurement and so far the results obtained are perfectly accordant with the previous ones table 2.

Therefore, the disparity of the dating results does not rely on the method involved but is due to a polluting material, which has not been extracted by the chemical pre-treatment used. Consequently, the dating results are older than expected, so the polluting material is depleted in 14 C. This last substance of fossil origin is consistent with an ageing effect suggesting that the polluting product, not correctly extracted by the chemical ABA pre-treatment, could be bitumen.

For this study, we decided to focus on the characterization and dating of linen textile samples instead of the other organic materials hair, skin, flesh so as to avoid difficulties relating to the separation and identification of the organic contamination. Figure 3: Results of radiocarbon dating performed on the two embalmed mummies. About 3 to 5 analyses for each sample have been performed and representative spectra are presented in figure 4.

The infrared spectrum of the embalmed mummies and are similar. For the mummythe same absorption bands are also visible with different shape: i the most intense band of the cm -1 region is centred on cm -1 with a quite different profile, ii the CH region do not display such resolute and intense double band between and cm Figure 4: Representative ATR-IR spectra obtained on textile samples from embalmed mummiesand Predynastic mummyunderlining a different signature for samples where bitumen is suspected.

General profiles are similar for textile taken on embalmed mummies and They are characterized by a large peak around cm -1 with a single band close to cm -1 ; and a double band around cm The five IR spectra have similar profiles confirming that the four Egyptian textiles are made of linen Garside and Wyeth, Proniewicz et al.

They are characterized by three absorption bands around cm -1cm -1 and cm A single band attributed to the C-H stretching vibrations characterizes the last one. This single band is characteristic of linen when included in textiles Garside and Wyeth, unlike the vibrational spectra of linen fibres in their raw state and before any processingwhich show a double band in this cm -1 region Proniewicz et al.

The corresponding spectrum figure 5b is characterized by absorption bands at, and cm This would explain the ageing of radiocarbon dates. Nevertheless, a single band is observed around cm -1 and is only present on embalmed mummies. Such signal is due neither to bitumen nor linen textile Peters et al. At this stage of the research, it could be related to the alteration of the archaeological sample over time, the interaction between linen and bitumen, or the use of other embalming materials in conjunction with bitumen.

The five IR spectra are quasi-similar b : Comparison of the IR spectra obtained on one pure modern linen textile, on a textile from an embalmed mummy and on Judean bitumen. Besides, the single band close to cm -1 is absent of both the bitumen and the pure linen spectra. Par ailleurs, la bande simple autour de cm -1 est absente du spectre du bitume et de celui du lin pur moderne. To test the effects of each step of this protocol on radiocarbon dating, eight different samples have been produced.

They are listed on Table 4. They have been observed by binocular microscopy figure 6 : test-sample 2 step 1 shows the linen textile dipped in bitumen; it could be compared to test-sample 7 pure linen textile. Test-samples 3 and 4 steps 1, 2, 3 are more blackened and brighter than test-samples 5 and 6 steps 1, 2even though the four have undergone the extraction protocol but the last two have not been artificially aged.

Figure 6 Binocular microscopy observations of the eight test-samples. Test-sample 7 and 8 have not been dipped in bitumen 7: modern linen; 8: modern linen which undergone the extraction protocol step 3.

Test-sample 2 shows the linen textile after being dipped in bitumen step 1. Test-samples 3 and 4 have been dipped in bitumen, thermally degraded and extracted steps 1, 2, 3 ; they seems more blackened and brighter than test-samples 5 and 6, which have been dipped in bitumen and extracted without being thermally degraded steps 1, 2.

The major band around cm -1attributed to linen, is present on the test-samples spectra, excepting for the test-sample 2. The comparison of this sample spectrum with the bitumen one shows that only the representative bands of bitumen in and cm -1 regions are present in its spectrum.

This sample did not undergo the extraction protocol. For spectra from samples 3 and 4 dipped, degraded and extracted samplesthe sharp representative bitumen bands and cm -1 could be suspected as shoulders on the broad peak centred in this spectral range and attributed to linen. The presence of this extra band is not explained at the moment, but is not induced by the extraction solvents no cm -1 band in the extracted modern linen.

Because this band is only present in the spectra of embalmed mummies figure 5b and in the thermally degraded samples 3 and 4 figure 7it is clearly associated with the presence of bitumen in aged samples. Test-sample 2, 3 and 4 steps 1, 2, 3 spectra have a shoulder at cm -1 and the double band characteristic of bitumen in the peak cm -1 is not clearly identifiable, but could not be excluded. On the contrary, test-samples 5 and 6 steps 1, 2 have IR spectra very similar to those of pure line spectra: no shoulder at cm -1 and a single broad band in the peak cm Besides, test-sample 8 step 2 is modern, which means that the solvents involved in the extraction protocol do not affect radiocarbon dates.

Finally, we note that whatever the test-sample studied, adding the ABA pre-treatment does not bring any significant cleaning. Figure 8: Summary of radiocarbon dating results obtained for the eight test-samples illustrating the potential bitumen extraction. A: samples directly combusted after the experimental extraction protocol; B: samples which have undergone an ABA chemical pre-treatment after extraction.

Test-samples 3 and 4 are not modern so all bitumen has not been extracted; test-samples 5 and 6 are modern so all bitumen has correctly been extracted. On the contrary, test-samples 5 and 6 steps 1, 2 are modern: thus for the samples which have not been artificially aged, bitumen has correctly been extracted from the linen fibres.

Third, test-samples that underwent all the experimental protocol and especially the thermal degradation are not modern, so bitumen largely remains on these samples. We have also noticed that IR spectra of pure linen textile remain stable over time from First Intermediate Period to Hellenestic one.

This suggests linen alteration over time would not be as a satisfactory explanation. Therefore, further investigations have to be conducted to clarify the presence and meaning of the infrared signature around cm -1which only appears on the IR spectra of the two embalmed mummies and on the impregnated test-samples that have been thermally degraded. IR analyses will be realized on modern linen textiles dipped in other embalming materials than bitumen oils, resins… and then, thermally degraded, to verify if the cm -1 band is present and being persistent for other organic substances adsorbed by linen.

To get a better understanding of the adsorption process of bitumen in linen fibres, a kinetic study will be done by ageing artificially both samples by time and temperature gradients. This study will be lead on three different kinds of samples: 1 pure and modern linen textiles 2 modern linen textiles dipped in bitumen 3 pure bitumen samples.

First, the present protocol will be improved by using hot solvents to increase their power. According to the radiocarbon results, other solvents will be added in the present protocol like pentane, benzene or carbon disulfide that solubilizes non-mineral fraction of bitumen. Ancient Egyptian sources attest the possibility that embalmers employed bitumen for funeral rituals during the Late Period. A first experimental protocol has been developed to extract bitumen from linen textile, and tested on modern linen textile.

It divides into four steps: soaking of textile in bitumen — thermal degradation of linen samples — extraction protocol — IR analyses and radiocarbon dating. Eight test-samples have been produced combining the four different steps of the protocol. Radiocarbon dates show that those test-samples dipped in bitumen and extracted without being accelerated ageing are modern, so they do not contain bitumen anymore.

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